Officially the Republic of El Salvador, it is a sovereign country of Central America located on the coast of the Pacific Ocean.
El Salvador – Country Profile and General Information
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador, is a sovereign country of Central America located on the coast of the Pacific Ocean with a territorial extension of 21,041 km². In 2018, it had an estimated population of 7,329,015 inhabitants, making it the most densely populated country in the American continent, without including some islands in the Caribbean Sea.
El Salvador borders Guatemala to the west and Honduras to the north and east, to the southeast the Gulf of Fonseca separates it from Nicaragua, and flanked to the south by the Pacific Ocean. Its territory is organized into 13 departments, 35 districts and 249 municipalities. The city of San Salvador is the capital of the country; its metropolitan area includes 14 nearby municipalities, and concentrates the country's political and economic activity.
The current territory of El Salvador includes what was formerly the Mayor of Sonsonate and what was the Municipality of San Salvador that made up most of the territory. Both provinces acquired their independence from Spain in 1821 together with the Captaincy General of Guatemala and in 1824 they joined to form the "State of El Salvador", as part of the Federal Republic of Central America. In pre-Columbian times, there was an important indigenous nucleus known as the Señorío de Cuzcatlán (which in the Nahuat language means 'place of jewels' or 'place of necklaces').
A 12-year civil war, whose human cost reached approximately 75,000 lives, ended on January 16, 1992, when the government and the guerrillas signed peace accords that led to military, social, and political reforms in the country.